Health Quality and Cost of Living in Asian Cities

Jovelin M. Lapates, Sales G. Aribe Jr., Jennifer P. Barroso, Beulah Joy K. Damasco

Abstract


Health is now a global concern. However,only a few studies are conducted on how the cost of living affects the quality of healthcare. This study aimed to determine the relationships between the cost of living and quality of healthcare. It is a quantitative method that utilizes data mining technique in the data collection. Numbeo database was used to determine the cost of living and healthcare indices of 36 Asian cities. Statistical treatment was employed using Minitab software version 16 to generate patterns and to determine the relationships of these indices through regression analysis. The scatterplot revealed different patterns of the high cost of living (X) and healthcare index (Y), namely: 1) simple linear model (inverse relation), 2) simple linear model (directly proportional) and 3) elliptical pattern. Findings revealed that there are cities in Asia which allocate more in healthcare spending than other personal needs. In general, people living in Asia do not necessarily avail of healthcare programs and services regardless of their cost of living. Such relationship, therefore, differs from one city to another. Nevertheless, the price of living index and healthcare index relationships infers that there are cities in Asia that tend to increase its healthcare index when the cost of living increases. These people are health conscious and allocate a higher percentage of their expenses to health and wellness. There are also cities that have minimal budget allocation for health care from their GDP which requires their people to apportion more personal funds for health.


Keywords


Cost of living, healthcare, health car equality, health care cost, health expenditure

Full Text:

JEHRD005

References


Amadeo, K. (2017). Cost of living: Define, calculate, compare, rank how to compare the cost of living around the world. Retrieved from the balance.com/cost-of-living-define-calculate -compare-rank-3305737.

Bengt-˚Ake L. (1992). Technological public–private innovation networks: A conceptual framework describing their structure and mechanism of interaction. Organizational Theorist In National Systems of Innovation.

Begashaw, B. & Tesfaye, T. (2016). Healthcare utilization among urban and rural households inesera district: comparative cross-sectional study. American Journal of Public Health Research,4(2),56-61.

Burke, L. A. & Ryan, A.M. (2014). The complex relationship between cost and quality in US Healthcare. American Medical Association Journal of Ethics Virtual Mentor,16(2),124-130.

Cook, L. (2015). The new annual index measures healthcare’s changing impact on the U.S. economy. Retrieved from https://www.usnews.com/news/health-care -index/articles/2015/05/07/us-news-healthcare-index

Coulter, A., Entwistle, V.A., Eccles, A., Ryan, S., Shepperd, S., Perera, R. (2013). Personalised care planning for adults with chronic or long-term health conditions (Protocol). Cochrane DatabaseofSystematicReviews,(5). doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD010523.

Diener, E. and Chan, M. Y. (2011), Happy people live longer: Subjective well-being contributes to health and longevity. Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being, 3, 1–43. doi:10.1111/j.1758-0854.2010.01045.x

Difference between urban and rural India. Retrieved from differencebetween.net/miscellaneous/diffe rence-between-urban-and-rural-india/

Eric Sullivan (2016) Equations for Planetary Ellipses. InternationalJournalofScientific and Research Publications, Volume 6, Issue5,May2016160ISSN2250-3153

Expatistan.com/cost-of-living/yerevan. Cost of living in Yerevan, Armenia. Retrieved onNovember28,2016.

Expatarrivals.com/vietnam/healthcare-in-vietn am. Healthcare in Vietnam.Retrieved on November28,2016.

Expatarrivals.com/vietnam/cost-of-living-in-vie tnam. CostofLivinginVietnam. Retrieved onNovember28,2016.

Gallouj, F., Rubalcaba, L., & Windrum, P. (Eds). 2013. Public–Private Innovation Networks in Services. Cheltenham, UK:Edward Elgar Publishing.

Kraipornsak, P. (2017). Factors Determining Health Expenditure in the Asian and the OECD Countries. Economics World, Sep.-Oct. 2017,Vol. 5,No. 5,407-417.

Healthcare System in India. Retrieved from internationalstudentinsurance.com/india-st udent-insurance/healthcare-system-in-indi a.php

Healthcare System in Israel. Retrieved from jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Health/healthgen.html.

Almalki, M. (2011). Healthcare system in Saudi Arabia: an overview). Eastern MediterraneanHealthJournal.

McLean, S., Sheikh, A., Cresswell, K., Nurmatov, U., Mukherjee, M., & Hemmi, A., (2013) The impact of telehealthcare on the quality and safety of care: A systematic overview. PLoS ONE, 8(8), e71238. Retrieved from http://doi.org.ololo.sci-hub.cc/10.1371/jour nal.pone.0071238

Numbeo.com/cost-of-living/region rankings.js p?title=2016-midregion=142.Asia: Cost of Living Index 2016 Mid Year. Retrieved on October4,2016

Numbeo.com/health-care/region rankings.jsp ?title=2016-midregion=142.Asia: Healthcare Index 2016 Mid Year. RetrievedonOctober4,2016

Asia: Quality of Life Index 2016. Retried from

Numbeo.com/quality-of-life/region ranking s.jsp?title=2016-midregion=142.

Numbeo.com/health-care/indices explained.js p.

Public Health Expenditure. (2016). Retrieved from Data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.XDPUBL. ZSSquires, D. A. (2012). Explaining high healthcare spending in the United States: An international comparison of supply, utilization, prices, and quality. The CommonwealthFund.

Schroeder, S. (2007) We can do better Improving the health of the American people. New English Journal of Medicine, 357:1221-1228.doi:10.1056/NEJMsa0733 50

List of Countries by Projected GDP. Retried from statisticstimes.com/economy/countries-by -projected-gdp.php.

India Sales Tax Rate. Retrieved from tradingeconomics.com/india/sales-tax-rate

Tonoyan, T. (2004). Healthcare System in Armenia: Past, Present And Prospects. National Institute of Health RA, Yerevan, Armenia.

Neuman, T. (2015). The Rising Cost of Living Longer: Analysis of Medicare Spending by Age for Beneficiaries in Traditional Medicare. HealthAffairs.

Vikram U. Srinivas, R. (2010) Healthcare: Reaching out to the masses. KPMG International.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.