Violence against Women and Gender Equality in the Philippines: Are they Related?

Jabin J. Deguma, Emerson D. Peteros, Melona S. Case, Vicente J. Igot


The Philippine Commission on Women furthered campaign in promoting gender equality in the Philippines which has been a socio-cultural issue over the past years. The strict implementation of the law may have caused Filipino women to speak up and report abuses against them. The study determined the model for the trends,a sample forecast for the next 10 years,and relatedness of the reported crime of violence against women and the Gender Gap Index (GGI) in the Philippines. It retrieved data from the reports of the Philippines Statistics Authority and of the World Economic Forum from 2006 to 2017 through data mining. This study employed descriptive methods via time trend analyses using Minitab R and Symbolic Regression using Eureqa Pro R . Using time trend analysis, the reported cases of violence against women fits the Quadratic Trend Model (MAD=1968) while the quality of gender equality in the Philippines fits the Linear Trend Model (MAD=0.00306). Both reports are forecasted to be increasing for the next 10 years. The symbolic regression analysis provided a forecasted relatedness of the reported cases of violence against women (R=0.9958, R2=0.9911, MAE=0.00067) to GGI. The reported cases of violence against women have a 73% positive association of increasing GGI. Such disclosure supports the necessity of pragmatically real social action from governmental and non-governmental organizations which prevent the occurrence of the crime of violence against women in the future and increase gender equality to promote social welfare as part of the sustainable development goals.


Gender and development; Social welfare; Sustainable development goals; Symbolic regression; Time trend analysis


Barmpalexis P., Kachrimanis K., Tsakonas A., & Georgarakis E. (2011). Symbolic regression via genetic programming in the optimization of a controlled release pharmaceutical formulation. Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems, 107(2011), 75–82. Retrieved from Doi: 10.1016/j.chemolab.2011.01.012

Beltran, C. B. (2015). Rapid assessment of the Magna Carta of Women and other laws for women in the electronics industry in export procession zones in the Philippines. Retrieved from oads/sites/3/2015/12/CBBRC-Rapid-Asse ssment-of-the-Magna-Carta-of-Women.pdf.

Bergqvist, C. (2016). The welfare state and gender equality. The Oxford Handbook of Swedish Politics. doi:10.1093 /oxfordhb/9780199665679.013.3.

Bradshaw, S., Chant, S., & Linneker, B. (2017). Gender and poverty: What we know, don’t know and need to know for Agenda 2030. Gender, Place & Culture. doi: 10.1080/0966369X.2017.1395821.

Carlson, K. & Randell, S. (2013). Gender and development: Working with men for gender equality in Rwanda. Journal on Empowering Women for Gender Equity, 27(1),114-125.

Choe, S., Cho, S., & Kim, H. (2016). Gender gap matters in maternal mortality in low and lower-middle-income countries: A study of the Global Gender Gap Index. Global Public Health. doi: 10.1080/17441692.2016.1162318.

Claveria, O., Monte, E., & Torra, S. (2016). Quantification of survey expectations by means of symbolic regression

via genetic programming to estimate economic growth in central and eastern European economies. Eastern European Economics, 54(2), 171-189. doi: 10.1080/00128775.2015.1136564.

Cochrane,L.,&Rao,N.(2018). Isthepushfor gender sensitive research advancing the SDG agenda of leaving no one behind? Forum for Development Studies. doi: 10.1080/08039410.2018. 142762.

Davis, K., & Patterson, D. (2012). Ethics of big data. Retrieved from https://Safari Books.pdf.

Deacon, B. (2016). SDGs, Agenda 2030 and the prospects for transformative social policy and social development. Journal of International and Comparative Social Policy. doi: 10.1080/21699763.2016.1200112.

East Asia Forum. (2015). Is gender inequality really so low in the Philippines? Retrieved from http://www. is-gender -inequality-really-so-low-in-the-philippines/.

Family and Community Healing Center. (n.d.). Philippine laws that protect women and children. Retrieved from https: // -laws-that-protect-women-and-children/.

Fanslow, J., Robinson, E., Crengle, S., & Perese, L. (2010). Juxtaposing beliefs and reality: Prevalence rates of intimate partner violence and attitudes to violence and gender roles reported by New Zealand women. Journal on Violence againstWomen,16(7),8128–8131.

Fulu, F., Warner, X., Miedema, S., Jewkes, R., Roselli, T., & Lang, J. (2013). Why do some men use violence against women andhowcanwepreventit? Retrievedfrom ens empowerment/RBAP-Gender-2013-P 4P-VAW-Report.pdf

Hausmann, R., Tyson, L. D., & Zahidi, S. (2010). Global gender gap report. Geneva: World Economic Forum. Retrieved from WEF GenderGap Report 2012.pdf.

Hopkins, A. & Patel, K. (2006). Reflecting on gender equality in Muslim contexts in Oxfam GB. Gender & Development, 14(3),423-435.

Husu, L. (2000). Gender discrimination in the promised land of gender equality. Higher Education in Europe, 25(2), 221-228. doi: 10.1080/713669257.

Iles, H. R. (2013). Ethics of data mining: A New Zealand survey. Retrieved from 264673019.

Jewkes, R. (2002). Intimate partner violence: Causes and prevention. The Lancet, 359, 14231–14429.

Korpi,W.(2000). Facesofinequality: Gender, class, and patterns of inequalities in different types of welfare states. Social Politics,7,127–91.

Korpi, W., Ferrarini, T., & Englund, S. (2013). Women’s opportunities under different family policy constellations: gender, class and inequality trade-offs in western countriesre-examined. SocialPolitics,20, 1–40.

Koza, J.R. (1994). Genetic programming as a means for programming computers by natural selection. Statistics and Computing,4,87–112.

Koza, J. R., Keane M. A., Streeter M. J., Mydlowec W., Yu, J., & Lanza, G. (2003). Genetic programming IV: Routine human-competitive machine intelligence. USA:KluwerAcademicPublisher.

Lombardo E., Meier, P., & Verloo, M. (2016). Policymaking from a gender+ equality perspective. Journal of Women, Politics & Policy. doi: 10.1080/1554477X.2016.1198206.

Lopez-Claros, A., & Zahidi, S. (2005). Women’s empowerment: Measuring the global gender gap. Geneva: World Economic Forum. Retrieved from salariais/gender gap.pdf.

Loots, S., & Walker, M. (2015). Shaping a genderequalitypolicyinhighereducation: Whichhumancapabilitiesmatter? Gender and Education, 27(4), 361-375. doi: 10.1080/09540253.2015.1045458.

Mandel,H.,&Semyonov,M.(2006). Awelfare state paradox: state interventions and women’s employment opportunities in 22 countries. American Journal of Sociology, 111,1910–49.

National Privacy Commission. (n.d.). Republic Act 10173-Data Privacy Act of 2012. Retrieved from

Nayak, M., Byrne, C., Martin, M., & Abraham, A. (2003). Attitudes towards violence againstwomen: Across-nationstudy. Sex Roles,49(7/8),3333–3342.

O’Connell, H. (2011). What are the opportunities to promote gender equity andequalityinconflict-affectedandfragile states? Gender & Development, 19(3). 2011.636571.

Onditi,F.,&Odera,J.(2016). Genderequality as a means to women empowerment? Consensus, challenges, and prospects for the post-2015 development agenda in Africa. African Geographical Review. doi: 10.1080/19376812.2016.1185737.

Palmer, E. (2015). Introduction: The 2030 Agenda. Journal of Global Ethics, 11(3), 262-269. doi: 10.1080/17449626.2015.1119928.

Pease, B. (2008). Engaging men in men’s violence prevention: Exploring the tensions, dilemmas and possibilities. Sydney: Australian Domestic and Family ViolenceClearinghouse.

Permanyer, I. (2008). On the measurement of gender equality and gender related development levels. Journal of Human Development, 9(1), 87-108. doi: 10.1080/14649880701811427.

Philippine Commission on Women. (2009a). Statistics on violence against Filipino women. Retrieved from cs-violence-against-filipino-women.

Philippine Commission on Women. (2009b). Violence against women (VAW). Retrieved from http://www.

Philippine Commission on Women. (2009c). Statistics on Filipino women and men’s labor and employment. Retrieved from atistics-filipino-women-and-mens-labor-an d-employment.

Philippine Commission on Women. (2009d). Women participation in politics and governance. Retrieved from http: //


Philippine Commission on Women. (2009e). Statistics on Filipino women and men’s education. Retrieved from atistics-filipino-women-and-mens-education.

Philippine Statistics Authority. (2017). Philippinesinfigures2017. Retrievedfrom 20 17.pdf.

Philippine Statistics Authority. (n.d.). Sustain able development goals: 17 Goals to transform our world. Retrieved from https: //

Ponte, N. B., & Enr´ıquez, C. R. (2016). Agenda 2030: A bold enough framework towards sustainable, gender -just development? Gender & Development, 24 (1), 83-98. doi: 10.1080/13552074.2016.1142227.

Razavi, S. (2016).The 2030 agenda: Challenges of implementation to attain gender equality and women’s rights. Gender&Development,24(1),25-41. doi: 10.1080/13552074.2016.1142229.

Ridgeway, C. (2014). Why status matters for inequality. American Sociological Review, 79 (1),11–16.

Rosche, D. (2016). Agenda 2030 and the sustainable development goals: Gender equality at last? An Oxfam perspective. Gender & Development, 24(1), 111-126. doi: 10.1080/13552074.2016.1142196.

Rouse, M. (2008). Data mining. Retrieved from https://searchsqlserver.

Senate of the Philippines. (2013). Crime statistics at a glance. Retrieved from AG%202013-05%20%20Crime%20Stati stics.pdf.

Sipil¨a, J., Anttonen, A., & Baldock, J. (2003). The importance of social care. In A. Anttonen, J. Baldock, and J. Sipil¨a (Eds.). The young, the old, and the state: Social care systems in five industrial nations. CheltenhamandLondon: EdwardElgar.

Stanistreet, D., Bambra, C., & Scott-Samuel, A. (2005). Is patriarchy the source of men’s higher mortality? Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 59, 873–876. doi:10.1136/jech.2004.030387.

Stratigaki, M. (2004). The cooptation of gender concepts in EU policies: The case of ‘reconciliation’ of work and family. SocialPolitics,11(1),30–56.

United Nations. (2015). Philippines: Sustainable development knowledge platform. Retrieved from https://sustain ilippines.

United Nations Development Programme. (2018). What are the sustainable development goals? Frequently asked questions (Human Development Reports). Retrievedfromhttp://www.undp. org/content/undp/en/home/sustainable-de velopment-goals.html.

United Nation Development Fund for Women. (2001). List of organization addressing VAW in the Philippines. Retrieved from RGANIZATIONS-ADDRESSING-VAW-PHI LIPPINES.pdf.

Villag´omez, E. (2004). Gender responsive budgets: Issues, good practices, and policy options. Paper presented at the Regional Symposium on Mainstreaming Gender into Economic Policies. Geneva, Switzerland.

Wall, L. (2014). Gender equality and violence against women what’s the connection? Australian Centre for the Study of Sexual Assault. Retrieved from ation-documents/ressum7.pdf.

Walby, S. (2005). Gender mainstreaming: Productivetensionsintheoryandpractice. SocialPolitics,12(3),3213-3243.

Winchester, H. P. M., & Browning, L. (2015). Gender equality in academia: a critical reflection. Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management, 37(3), 269-281. doi:10.1080/1360080X.2015.1034427.

Witten, I. H., Eibe F., & Holmes, G. (2011). Data mining: Practical machine learning tools and techniques (3rd ed.).Burlington, MA:MorganKaufmann.

World Economic Forum. (2017). Gender gap index report. Retrieved from GGGR 2 017.pdf.

World Health Organization. (2010). Preventing intimate partner and sexual violence against women: Taking action and generating evidence. Geneva: WHO & London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine.

World Health Organization. (2005). WHO multi-country study on women’s health and domestic violence against women. Summary report of initial results on prevalence, health outcomes and women’s responses. Geneva: World HealthOrganization

World Health Organization. (2007). Mortality and global health estimates. Global health observatory. Retrieved 0?lang=en.

World Health Organization. (2009a). World health statistics 2009. Retrieved from health statistics/EN WHS09 Full.pdf.

World Health Organization. (2009b). Violence Prevention: Promoting gender equality to prevent violence against women. Retrieved from injury prevent ion/violence/gender.pdf.

Full Text: JEHRD006


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.