What Social Progress Indicators are Enhanced by Mother Tongue Instruction?

Mark B. Galdo, Dana D. Lim


This paper investigated on what social progress indicators are enhanced by mother tongue instruction as evidence of better education outcomes particularly in access to basic education, access to information and communication, access to advanced education and opportunity, personal life choices, adult literacy, freedom of expression and freedom of assembly. The study utilized secondary data from Social Progress Index of 2017 and Asia Multilingual Education Mapping of Classroom and of Language Classroom Practices of sixteen (16) countries in the Asian region in which identified as major implementors of Mother Tongue Instruction (MTI). The countries were classified into less, moderate and high usage of mother tongue instruction. With the used of statistical software, the data were processed using the linear discriminant to analyze the labeled data and tries to maximize the discrimination between the classes. The results showed that the enhanced social progress indices are the following: access to basic knowledge and information communication, personal life choices and freedom of assembly. It also revealed that there are four indicators - access to advanced education, opportunities, adult literacy and freedom of expression, which are considered trade-offs despite the enhanced social progress indicators of mother tongue instruction.


Basic education; Mother tongue; Language


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