Energy Yields of a GPS-based Dual-Axis Solar Tracker and a Fixed Mount PV Panel Operating in Different Weather Conditions

Dang Manh Cuong, Adolfo C. Ancheta


In this study, energy yield comparisons were conducted between a fixed mount photovoltaic system and a dual-axis solar tracking system with identical solar panels. The GPS-based solar tracking system was designed to ensure maximum energy generation from the sun’s radiation. By tracking the sun’s movement across the sky during the day, the GPS-based dual-axis solar tracking system was able to trap sunlight intensity from 6:30 6:30 p.m. The absorbed energy of the solar tracking system using GPS was more than that of the fixed mount panel, with the energy produced on sunny day, cloudy day and rainy day at 8,211Wh, 4,738Wh and 2,419Wh,respectively. The average energy generated from the dual axis solar tracking system was 5,390Wh/day in 2016, which was 25.2% more than the average energy generated from the fixed mount system.


Dual axis solar tracker;GPS module; Arduino; Tilt angle sensor;RTC;Energy generated


Abdollahpour, M., Golzarian, M. R., Rohani, A.,& Abootorabi Zarchi, H. (2018). Developmentofamachinevisiondual-axis solar tracking system. Solar Energy, 169, 136–143.doi:10.1016/j.solener.2018.03.059

Abdulrahman,A.,Hamoud,A.,Al-Nehari,A.N. ,& Almakhlafy, M.B. (2016). Design and implementation of solar tracking system. International Journal of Engineering and TechnicalResearch,4(1).

Al-Ammri, A.S., Mustafa Al-Attar, F.I. ,& Ahmad F.F. (2015). Performance test of two-axis solar tracker system with distinct tracking strategies. AASCIT Journal of Energy,2(5): 57-60.

Almeida, R. H., Narvarte, L. ,& Lorenzo, E. (2018). PV arrays with delta structures for constant irradiance daily profiles. Solar Energy, 171, 23–30. doi:10.1016/j.solener.2018.06.066

Al-Rousan, N., Isa, N. A. M. ,& Desa, M. K. M. (2018). Advances in solar photovoltaic tracking systems: A review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 82, 2548–2569. doi:10.1016/j.rser.2017.09.077

Arul Kumar, M., Arjun, T.S. 2016. Design of single axis solar tracking system using PLC. Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research. 24, 1–5. Retrieved from /1.pdf

Bayrak, F, Ert¨urk, G. ,& Oztop,H.F. (2017). Effects of partial shading on energy and exergy efficiencies for photovoltaic panels. Journal of Cleaner Production, 164, 58–69. Retrieved from

Das, D., Kalita, P. ,& Roy, O. (2018). Flat plate hybrid photovoltaic- thermal (PV/T) system: A review on design and development. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 84, 111–130. doi:10.1016/j.rser.2018.01.002

Engin, M. ,& Engin, D. (2014). Design of real time embedded PID controller for Sun tracking robot manipulator. Paper presented at 2014 IEEE/ASME International Conference on Advanced Intelligent Mechatronics. Besanc¸on, France.

Eldin, S. A. S., Abd-Elhady, M. S., & Kandil, H. A. (2016). Feasibility of solar tracking systems for PV panels in hot and cold regions. RenewableEnergy,85,228–233. doi:10.1016/j.renene.2015.06.051

Gai, Z.W., Gao, S.Q., & Long, J. (2014). Design of automatic sunlight tracking solar panel system based on single chip microcomputer. Advanced Material Research, 834–836, 1128-1131. Retrieved from /AMR.834-836.1128

Hafez, A. Z., Yousef, A. M. , & Harag, N. M. (2018). Solar tracking systems: Technologies and trackers drive types – A review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 91, 754–782. doi:10.1016/j.rser.2018.03.094

Hafez, A. Z., Soliman, A., El-Metwally, K. A., & Ismail, I. M. (2017). Tilt and azimuth angles in solar energy applications – A review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 77, 147–168. doi:10.1016/j.rser.2017.03.131

Hammad, B., Al-Sardeah, A., Al-Abed, M., Nijmeh, S., & Al-Ghandoor, A. (2017). Performance and economic comparison of fixed and tracking photovoltaic systems in Jordan. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 80, 827–839.doi:10.1016/j.rser.2017.05.241

Hong, T., Lee, M., Koo, C., Jeong, K., & Kim, J. (2017). Development of a method for estimating the rooftop solar photovoltaic (PV) potential by analyzing the available rooftop area using Hillshade analysis. Applied Energy, 194, 320–332. doi:10.1016/j.apenergy.2016.07.001

Ingole, A.N. (2016). Arduino based solar tracking system. Paper presented at Satellite Conference ICSTSD 2016 International Conference on Science and Technology for Sustainable Development. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Retrieved from r-tracking-system.html

Kentli, K., & Yılmaz, M. (2012). Obtaining the optimumefficiencyelectricalenergyunder Diyarbakir conditions using solar tracking system involving PV panel. Energy Education Science and Technology Part A,(30),613-620.

Krishna Kumar, N., Subramaniam, V., & Murugan, E. (2018). Power analysis of non-tracking PV system with low power RTC based sensor independent solar tracking (SIST) PV system. Materials Today: Proceedings, 5(1), 1076–1081.doi:10.1016/j.matpr.2017.11.185

Lee, M., Hong, T., Jeong, J., & Jeong, K. (2018). Development of a rooftop solar photovoltaic rating system considering the technical and economic suitability criteria at the building level. Energy, 160, 213–224. doi:10.1016/

Mat Desa, M. K., Sapeai, S., Azhari, A. W., Sopian, K., Sulaiman, M. Y., Amin, N., & Zaidi, S. H. (2016). Silicon back contact solar cell configuration: A pathway towards higher efficiency. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 60, 1516–1532. doi:10.1016/j.rser.2016.03.004

Moradi, H., Abtahi, A., & Messenger, R. (2016). Annual performance comparison between tracking and fixed photovoltaic arrays. Paper presentedat2016IEEE43rdPhotovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC). Portland, Oregon: Portland Convention Center. doi:10.1109/pvsc.2016.7750252

Nsengiyumva, W., Chen, S. G., Hu, L., & Chen, X. (2018). Recent advancements and challenges in solar tracking systems (STS): A review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 81, 250–279. doi:10.1016/j.rser.2017.06.085

Sidek, M. H. ., Hasan, W. Z. ., Kadir, M. Z. A. A., Shafie, S., Radzi, M. A. M., Ahmad, S. A., & Marhaban, M. H. (2014). GPS based portable dual-axis solar tracking system using astronomical equation. Paper presented at 2014 IEEE International Conference on Power and Energy (PECon). Kuching, Malaysia. doi:10.1109/pecon.2014.7062450

Sidek, M. H. M., Azis, N., Hasan, W. Z. W., Ab Kadir, M. Z. A., Shafie, S., & Radzi, M. A. M. (2017). Automated positioningdual-axissolartrackingsystem with precision elevation and azimuth angle control. Energy, 124, 160–170. doi:10.1016/

Sirigauri, N., Raghav, S., Nikhil, R., Rupani, M.D. ,& Vanishree, G.(2015). Design and implementation of dual axis solar tracking system. International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications, 5(5), 48-51. doi:10.1109/compsac.2013.46

Skouri, S., Ben Haj Ali, A., Bouadila, S., Ben Salah, M., & Ben Nasrallah, S. (2016). Design and construction of sun tracking systems for solar parabolic concentrator displacement. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 60, 1419–1429. doi:10.1016/j.rser.2016.03.006

Wanjari, R., Aglawe, R. , & Thakare,A. (2016). Dual axis solar tracker using arduino for maximum power tracking. International Journal of Modern Trends in Engineering and Research (IJMTER) 3(3). Retrieved from sue-3/dual-axis-solar-tracker-using-arduino -for-maximum-power-tracking.pdf.

Yılmaz, M.,& Kentli, F. (2015). Increasing electrical energy with solar tracking system at the region which has Turkey’s most solar energy potential. Journal of Clean Energy Technologies, 3(4). doi: 10.7763/JOCET.2015.V3.210

Yilmaz, S., Riza Ozcalik, H., Dogmus, O., Dincer, F., Akgol, O., & Karaaslan, M. (2015).Design of two axes sun tracking controller with analytically solar radiation calculations. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 43, 997–1005. doi:10.1016/j.rser.2014.11.090

Yoo, J., Kang, Y, Song, B. ,& Song, J. (2014). Solar tracking system experimental verification based on GPS and vision sensor fusion. Journal of Automation and Control Engineering, 2(4). Retrieved from /20140114010221351. pdf. doi: 10.12720/joace.2.4.417-421

Yuan, J., Farnham, C., Emura, K., & Lu, S. (2016). Amethodtoestimatethepotential of rooftop photovoltaic power generation for a region. Urban Climate, 17, 1–19. doi:10.1016/j.uclim.2016.03.001

Zhan, T., Lin, W., Tsai, M. ,& Wang, G. (2013). Design and implementation of the dual-axis solar tracking system. Paper presented at IEEE 37th Annual Computer Software and Applications Conference. Kyoto, Japan. doi: 10.1109/COMPSAC.2013.46

Full Text: JSET005


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.