Performance Evaluation of the Developed Solar Powered Poultry Egg Incubator for Chicken

Fe Alin T. Dalangin, Adolfo C. Ancheta


A Solar Powered Poultry Egg Incubator (SPPEI) was developed and tested to evaluate its performance, and it was compared to an existing incubator that can incubate chicken eggs within the temperature range of 35◦C to 40◦C. The main components of the developed incubator are the incubating unit, the temperature device and the photovoltaic (PV) system. The developed incubator had 73% hatchability,71% vigorous chicks and fewer dead embryos compared to the existing incubator that had 60% hatchability, 58% chick vigor and more embryos. The developed incubator hatched chicks starting on the 18th day until the 21st day of incubation, while the existing incubator hatched chicks on the 18th day until the 22nd day of incubation. The average temperatures in the developed incubator were within the acceptable incubation temperature range: at 37.72◦C (99.89◦F) in the morning , at 37.94◦C in◦ the afternoon(100.29◦F),and at 37.83◦C(100.09◦F)in the evening, while with the existing incubator, it is within 38.67◦C (101.6◦F), 38.74◦C (101.7◦F) and 38.52◦C (101.3◦F). The average relative humidities in the developed incubator are 60% in the morning, 60.3% in the afternoon and also 60.3% in the night while that of the existing incubator are 60%, 57.33% and 59%,respectively. The egg incubator was able to maintain the optimum conditions for the hatching of the chicken eggs, and was capable of incubating and hatching the chicken eggs effectively.


Temperature; Humidity; Ventilation; Hatchability; Chickvigor; Egg incubator


Abiola, S.S., Afolabi, A. O., & Dosunmu, O. J. (2008). Hatchability of chicken eggs as influenced by turning frequency in hurricane lantern incubator. African Journal of Biotechnology, 7(23). pp. 4310-4313. Retrieved from

Abraham N.T., Mathew S.L., & Kumar C.A. (2014). Design and Implementation of Solar PV poultry incubator. International Journal of Engineering and Advanced Technology,3(3),289-291.

Adegbulugbe T.A., Atere A.O., & Fasanmi O.G.(2013). Development of an automatic electric egg incubator. International Journal of Scientific and Engineering Research,4(9),914-918.

Adewumi, A.A., Ayodele, I.A., & Lameed, G.A. (2008). The effect of incubator type on hatchability and chick survival of emu dromaius novae hollandiae (Le Souef 1907). Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management, 12(2), 13-15.

Agbo, D.O., Otengye, O.J, & Dodo, S.H. (2018). Proposed development of a solar powered automated incubator for chickens. International Journal of Engineering and Techniques, 4(1), 2395-1303.

Ahiaba, U.N., Theresa, U.V., & Obetta, S.E. (2015). Development and evaluation of a passive solar powered system for poultry egg incubation. International Journal of Engineering Research and General Science,3,748-760.

Ajiwiguna, T.A & Suprayogi, K. I. (2018). Application of thermoelectric module as heater for eggs incubator system. International Journal of Applied Engineering Research, 13(11), 9871-9873.

Almeida VR, Morita VS, Sgavioli S, Vicentini TI, Castiblanco DMC, & Boleli I.C. (2016). Incubation temperature manipulation during fetal development reduces adiposity of broiler hatchlings. Poultry Science,95(2),316-324.

Aru, O.E. (2017). Development of a computerized engineering technique to improve incubation system in poultry farms. Journal of Scientific and EngineeringResearch,4,109–119.

Benedict, R.P. (2009). Fundamentals of temperature, pressure, and flow measurements (3rd ed.) Canada:John Wiley & Sons, Inc. doi:10.1002/9780470172698.

Benjamin, N. & Oye, N. (2012). Modification of the design of poultry incubator. International Journal of Application or Innovation in Engineering&Management, 1(4),90-102.

Bolaji, B.O. (2008) Design and performance evaluation of a solar poultry egg incubator. Thammasat International Journal of ScienceandTechnology,13(1),47-55.

Boleli, I., Morita, V., Matos Jr, J., Thimotheo, M., & Almeida, V. (2016). Poultry egg incubation: Integrating and optimizing production efficiency. Brazilian Journal of Poultry Science, Special Issue 2. doi:10.590/1806-9061-2016-0292.

Brinsea Incubation Handbook. Retrieved from Handbook.pdf.

Enibe,S.O.(2002). Performance of a natural circulation solar air heating system with phase change material energy storage. Renewable Energy,27(1),69-86.

French, N.A. (1997). Modelling incubation temperature: The effect of incubator design, embryonic development and egg size. PoultryScience,76,124-133.

Gbabo, A., Liberty, J.T; Gunre, O.N. & Owa, G.J. (2014). Design, construction and performance evaluation of an electric powered egg incubator. International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology3,521-526.

Iqbal, J., Khan, S. H., Mukhtar, N., Ahmed, T., & Pasha, R. A. (2014). Effects of egg size (weight) and age on hatching performance and chick quality of broiler breeder. Journal of Applied Animal Research, 44(1), 54–64. doi:10.1080/09712119.2014.987294

Irtwange, S. V. (2003). Passive solar poultry eggs incubator: II development and preliminary performance evaluation. Journal of Applied Science, Engineering andTechnology,3(2),30-36.

Kalubarme, P., Jambhale, P., Adate, P., & Pawar, P. (2018). Hatching eggs automatically. Paper presented at 2nd National Conference on Modern Trends in Electrical Engineering. Vijayawada, Andhra Pradesh, India. Retrieved from 10417 NCMTEE-2K18.pdf

Kingo’ri, A.M. (2011). Review of the factors that influence egg fertility and hatchability in poultry. International Journal of Poultry Science, 10(6), 483-492. doi: 2011.483.492.

Kuye, S. I., Adekunle, N. O., Adetunji, O. R., and Olaleye, D. O. (2007). Design and construction of solar incubator. Paper presented at 3rd Conference on Science and National Development. Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria: Federal University of Agriculture. Retrieved from 75210475

Mansaray, K.G., and Yansaneh, O. (2015). Fabrication and performance evaluation of a solar powered chicken egg incubator. International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering, 5(6),31-36.

Molenaar, R., van den Borne, J. J. G. C., Hazejager, E., Kristensen, N. B., Heetkamp, M. J. W., Meijerhof, R., & Van den Brand, H. (2013). High environmental temperature increases glucose requirement in the developing chicken embryo. PLoS ONE, 8(4). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0059637.

Ngambi, J.W., Thamaga, M.W., Norris, D. Mabelebele, M. & Alibi, O.J. (2013). Effects of egg weight on hatchability, chick hatch-weight and subsequent productivity of indigenous venda chickens in Polokwane, South Africa. South African Journal of Animal Science, 43(5), S69-S74.

Okpagu, P. E. and Nwosu, A. W. (2016). Development and temperature control of smart egg incubator system for various types of egg. European Journal of Engineering and Technology, (4)2, 2056-5860.

Ogunwande, G.A., Akinola, E., O., & Lana, A.R. (2015). Development of a biogas-powered poultry egg incubator. IFE Journal of Science 17(1), 219-228. Retrieved from ew/131783.

Okonkwo, W. I. & Chukwuezie, O. C. (2012). Characterization of a photovoltaic powered poultry egg incubator. Paper presented at 4th International Conference on Agriculture and Animal Science. Singapore. doi: 10.7763/IPCBEE. 2012. V47. 1.

OmarM.F.,HarisH.C.M.,HidayatM.N.,Ismail I., & Seroji M.N. (2016). Smart eggs incubator system. International Journal of Simulation, Science and Technology, 17(41),1-7.

Othman, R.A., Amin, M.R., & Rahman, S. (2014). Effect of egg size, age of hen and storage period on fertility,hatchability, embryo mortality and chick malformation in eggs of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Science,7(1),101-106.

Pallavi, B, Tripathi, J, Hermant, G, Veena, B, Ramteke, P, & Burange, R. (2018). Development of smart egg incubator system using arduino. International Journal of Engineering Science and Computing,8(3),16599.

Radhakrishnan, K., Noble J., Sanjay, S.G, Thomas, C., & Vishnu, K.R. (2014). Design and implementation of a fully automated egg incubator. International Journal of Advanced Research in Electrical,Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering,3(2),2056-5860.

Ramaphala, N.O & Mbajiorgu, C.A. (2013). Effect of egg weight on hatchability and chick hatch-weight of cobb 500 broiler chickens. Asian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances, 8, 885-892. doi:10.3923/ajava.2013.885.892

Ramli, M. B., Lim, H. P., Wahab, M. S., & Zin, M. F. M. (2015). Egg hatching incubator using conveyor rotation system. Procedia Manufacturing, 2, 527-531. doi:10.1016/j.promfg.2015.07.091.

Robinson, F.E, Fasenko G.M, & Renema R.A. (2013). Optimizing chick production in broiler breeders. Alberta: Poultry Research Centre.

Rogelio, B.P. and Vinyl, H.O. (2016). Design and development of a micro controller-based egg incubator for small scale poultry production. Global Journal of Science Frontier Research: The Agriculture and Veterinary,16(2),1-7.

Roovert-Reijrink, I. (2018). Incubation affects chick quality. Retrieved from https://www.poultry /Genetics/ Articles/2013/5/Incubation-affects-chick-qu ality-183725W/retreived

Sansomboonsuk, S. (2011). Automatic Incubator. Energy Research Journal 2(2), 51-56.

Sanjaya, W. S., Maryanti, S., Wardoyo, C., Anggraeni, D., Aziz, M. A., Marlina, L., & Kusumorini, A. (2018). The development of quail eggs smart incubator for hatching system based on microcontroller and Internet of Things (IoT). Paper presented at 2018 International Conference on Information and Communications Technology. Yogyakarta, Indonesia. doi:10.1109/icoiact.2018.8350682.

ShittuS.,OlasunkanmJ.N.,MuhammadA.S., Jimoh M., & Muhammad A.S. (2017). Development of an automatic bird-egg incubator. Journal of Embedded System and Applications,5(1),1-11.

Tona, K., Onagbesan, O., De Ketelaere, B., Decuypere, E. & Bruggeman, V. (2003). Effect of turning duration during incubation on corticosterone and thyroid hormone levels, gas pressures in air cell, chick quality and juvenile growth. Poultry Science,82,1974-1979.

Umar A. B., Lawal K., Mukhtar M. & Adamu M.S. (2016). Construction of an electrically-operated egg incubator. International Journal of Modern EngineeringSciences,5(1),1-18.

Van der Pol, C.W., Van Roovert-Reijrink, I.A.M, Maatjens C.M, Van den Brand H, & Molenaar R. (2013). Effect of relative humidity during incubation at a set eggshell temperature and brooding temperature post hatch on embryonic mortality and chick quality. Poultry Science,92(8),21452155.

Van der Pol, C.W, van Roovert-Reijrink I.A, Maatjens C.M, Van den Anker I, Kemp B, & Van den Brand H. (2014). Effect of eggshell temperature throughout incubation on broiler hatchling leg bone development. Poultry Science, 93, 2878-2883.

Wafadar, F. and Puls, I. (2011). Improving hatching and brooding in small-scale poultry. Wageningen, Netherlands: Agromisa Foundation and CTA

Full Text: JSET007


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.