Product Optimization of Yogurt Ice Cream flavored with Fermented Cacao Butter (Theobroma cacao L.)

Mark Gerald Baay, Amabelle Sarena C. Gorne, Mary Ann Jilly R. Ramirez

Abstract


Cacao yogurt ice cream was subjected to optimization using Box-Behnken design. This study aims to determine the optimum levels of cacao butter as flavorant, yogurt starter and sugar. A total of 15 runs were conducted, following the Box-Behnken design. It was prepared by pasteurization of fresh cow’s milk, addition of yogurt, incubation and freezing. The 15 runs were subjected to physico-chemical, microbiological and sensory analyses. The statistical analysis revealed that high levels of sugar and yogurt starter significantly affect the sensory qualities and physico-chemical properties of the yogurt ice cream. Moreover, the levels of sugar and cocoa butter significantly affect the growth of lactic acid bacteria in the ice cream. The optimized level is composed of 5.23-9.3% cacao, 14-19% sugar and 16-25% yogurt.

Keywords


Response surface methodology; Yogurt starter; Optimization; Microbiological analysis

References


Agarwal, A. & Prasad, S. (2013). Effect of stabilizer on sensory characteristics and microbial analysis of low-fat frozen yoghurt

incorporated with carrot pulp.International Journal of Agriculture and Food Science Technology, 4(8), 797-806.

Anwar, S., Prayoga, R.D. & Murwani, R. (2013). Polyphenol extracts from low quality cocoa beans: antioxidant, antibacterial and food coloring properties. International Food Research Journal, 20(6), 3275-3281.

Caisip, R.D. & Resubal, L.E. (2001). Study on yogurt ice cream preparation from regular ice cream mix. Philippine Journal of Crop

Science, 27, 45-46.

Cloke, M., Hii, C.L., Law, C.L., Suzannah, S. & Misnawi, S. (2009). Polyphenols in cocoa (Theobroma Cacao L.). Asian Journal Food Agriculture Industry, 2(4), 702-722.

Cochran, W.G. & Cox, G.M. (1957). Experimental designs (2nd ed). New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc.

Flores, A. A. & Goff, H. D. (1999). Ice crystal distributions in dynamically frozen model solutions and ice cream as affected by stabilizers. Journal Dairy Science, 82,1399-1407.

Guner A., Ardic, M., Dogruer, Y. & Keles, A. (2007). Production of yogurt ice cream at different acidity. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 42, 948-952.

Kim, H. & Keeney, P.G. (1983). Method of analysis for (-) Epicatechin content in cocoa beans by high performance liquid chromatography. Journal of Food Science, 48(2), 548-551.

Mahdian, E., Tehrani M. M. & Nobahari, M. (2012). Optimizing Yogurt-Ice cream mix blend in soy based frozen yoghurt. Journal Agricultural Science and Technology, 14, 1275-1284.

Mangsi, A.,Khaskheli , G., Khaskheli, B.M., Soomro , A.H. , Baloch, M.H., & Nizamani, A.H. (2011).Production and Evaluation of Yoghurt Ice Cream. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 10(11), 955-958.

Montgomery, D.C. (1991). Design and analysis of experiment (3rd ed). New York: John Wiley and Sons.

Naik, B., & Kumar, V., (2014). Cocoa butter and its alternatives: A review. Journal of Bioresource Engineering and Technology, 1, 7-17.

Nazaruddin, R., Ayud, M.Y., Mamot, S., & Heng, C.H. (2001). HPLC determination of methylxanthines and polyphenol levels in cocoa and chocolate products, Malaysian Journal Analytical Science, 7, 377-386.

Pon, S.Y., Lee, W.J. & Chong, G.H. (2015).Textural and rheological properties of stevia ice cream.International Food Research Journal, 22(4), 1544-1549.

Talwalkar A., Miller, C.W., Kailasapathy, K., & Nguyen, M.H. (2004). Effect of packaging materials and dissolved oxygen on the survival of probiotic bacteria in yogurt. International Food Science and Technology, 39(6), 605- 611.

Tamine, A.Y., (2007). Fermented milks: A historical food with modern applications. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 56, 2-15.

Tamine, A.Y. & Robinson, R.K. (1998). Yoghurt science and technology (2nd ed). UK: Pergamon.

Tharp, B. W. & Young, L. S. (2008). Ice cream: An encyclopedic guide to ice cream science and technology. U.S:DEStech Publications, Inc.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.