Molluscicidal activity of tuba-tuba (Jatropha curcas L.) crude leaf extracts against Oncomelania hupensis quadrasi Möllendorf

Floremay L. Ludevese, Gladys Ludevese-Pascual, Harvie P. Portugaliza

Abstract


The molluscicidal property of various leaf extracts prepared from tuba-tuba Jatropha curcas L. were tested against the freshwater snail Oncomelania hupensis quadrasi as intermediate host of Schistosoma sp., the causative agent of schistosomiasis. Highest mortality of 80 % was obtained for crude petroleum ether extract (CPE) at a concentration of 1.5 mg mL-1 and this was comparable with the commercial molluscicide Niclosamide (100 %) at a concentration of .002 mg mL-1. For crude ethanolic extract (CE), snail mortalities of 92 % and 84 % were obtained at concentration of 1.5 mg mL-1 and 0.75 mg mL-1, respectively, and these values were not significantly different from the positive control consisting of commercial molluscicide Niclosamide at a concentration of .002 mg mL-1. One-hundred percent (100 %) snail mortality was achieved with 1, 100 mg mL-1 aqueous extract of tuba-tuba leaves. Considering the test conducted to determine the concentration needed to kill 50 % of the test animals after 24 h (LD50), the toxicity of various extracts is in the order of CE>CPE>AE with values 0.45>0.49>167.23 mg mL-1, respectively. Preliminary results on phytochemical analysis of bioactive compounds in J. curcas leaves indicated presence of alkaloids, tannins, terpenoids, flavonoids and saponins.  Terpenoids, the most toxic compound in J. curcas, were detected in CPE and CE but not or at least the concentration was lower than the detection limit in the AE. Overall, this study has demonstrated the potential of various extracts of tuba-tuba leaves as replacement for commercially available molluscicide in eradicating the vector snail of Schistosoma sp., the causative agent of the infectious disease schistosomiasis.

Keywords


Herbal molluscicide; Schistosomiasis; Tuba-tuba leaves; LD50; Bioactive compound

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